From biorheology to biofluid mechanics: Elucidating the behavior of Biofluids in complex flows


Yannis Dimakopoulos

University of Patras, Greece




In recent decades, the biomedical community has been reluctant to adopt advanced rheological constitutive models that describe the complex behavior of biological fluids such as blood and blood plasma. Moreover, the limited amount of relevant work in the literature pertains, mainly, to benchmark case studies and prototype flows while the utilization of those models for the prediction of complex flow dynamics or fluid-structure interactions, e.g., analysis of hemodynamics in micro-vessels, has been overlooked.


Widely embracing those models within the scientific community has been, primarily, constrained by the complexity of the proposed constitutive laws and the lack of a systematic framework for evaluating the model parameters and validating the predicted results. Therefore, the current talk focuses on a wide range of contributions from the Fluids Lab ( to the rheological modeling of various biological systems and the simulation of their flows towards alleviating the aforementioned issues.


We explore three major topics:


(i) the investigation of the blood plasma viscoelasticity[1],

(ii) the response of the endothelial glycocalyx (EG) to variations of the hemodynamic environment via DNS and analytical models[2], and

(iii) the constitutive modeling of blood as a Thixo-Elasto-Viscoplastic (TEVP) material[3]-[5].




[1] Varchanis, S., Dimakopoulos, Y., Wagner, C., & Tsamopoulos, J. (2018). How viscoelastic is human blood plasma? Soft Matter, 14(21), 42384251. doi:10.1039/c8sm00061a

[2] Mitsoulas, V., Varchanis, S., Dimakopoulos, Y., & Tsamopoulos, J. (2021). Dynamics and Apparent Permeability of the Glycocalyx Layer: Start-Up and Pulsating Shear experiments in-silico. Submitted for publication in PRF.

[3] Varchanis, S., Makrigiorgos, G., Moschopoulos, P., Dimakopoulos, Y., & Tsamopoulos, J. (2019). Modeling the rheology of thixotropic elasto-visco-plastic materials. Journal of Rheology, 63(4), 609639. doi:10.1122/1.5049136 

[4] Giannokostas, K., Moschopoulos, P., Varchanis, S., Dimakopoulos, Y., & Tsamopoulos, J. (2020). Advanced Constitutive Modeling of the Thixotropic Elasto-Visco-Plastic Behavior of Blood: Description of the Model and Rheological Predictions. Materials, 13(18), 4184. doi:10.3390/ma13184184 

[5] Giannokostas, K., Photeinos, D., Dimakopoulos, Y., & Tsamopoulos, J. (2021). Quantifying the non-Newtonian effects of pulsatile hemodynamics in tubes. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 298, 104673.




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