These pages were constructed (starting in 1998) to offer an easy route to contact me and to access my research and learning resources. Much of the material here is still relevant and possibly useful but this is now largely a legacy site and the content (like my photo) will not be updated regularly, if at all.
Available so far... Barriers, pores pumps and gates, Body fluid compartments, Kidney part 1, Kidney part 2, Nernst, Goldman and the Action Potential, The Labelled Line Code, A Brief Introduction to Pain, Really basic statistics
EGTA is the most popular with the scientific community and it has been cited many times by people just desperate to know exactly how much calcium they have.
It's that time of year again. Check out the 2018 igNobel prizes. My favourite from last year is "The first scientific report of human blood in the diet of the hairy-legged vampire bat".
|Barriers, Pores Pumps & Gates.|
|Pumps and channels.|
|Body Fluid Compartments.|
|Starlings Forces and capillaries.|
|Why do we need kidneys?.|
|What is that nephron thingy again?.|
|Salivary gland protein secretion.|
The lectures on homeostasis
I have been utilising the animation capabilities of powerPoint since the dawn of the 21st century and I have figured out many ways, of varying degrees of complexity, to make things move .
These tips and tricks were first shared in a workshop as part of the University of Liverpool Learning and Teaching Conference 2016.
If you have anything that you would like help animating.... then drop me a line.....
Webware are little apps which run in a browser. Created for fun or with a long-forgotten purpose. The purpose may have been forgotten, but the apps remain.
New-ish apps should run under any modern browser (the exception is Mandlebrot, which has decided that it doesn't like MSIE 9 and who can blame it). Older apps make use of a proprietary language called VML and so run only under MSIE.
If anyone would really like an app to work under a particular browser, then let me know and I will see whether it is feasible. Otherwise I will probably allow them to degrade gracefully, to be replaced with newer apps when the fancy takes me.
All the usual disclaimers apply. If you can contrive a way of damaging yourself or your PC with my software then it is your fault and your responsibility. I would however have an academic interest in hearing how you managed it!
|MicoCharta||The Anatomy Flashcards with a funny name. Learn that anatomy|
|EGTA||Calculate free calcium activity in a buffered solution.|
Harder to achieve than you might think..
|Mandelbrot||Look at fractal borders in a demo app created to show that it is possible to create pretty pictures using only DHTML|
|Fibonacci Clock||A truly geekish way of telling the time based on the fibonacci sequence 1,1,2,3,5. Hours are red. Minutes (in multiples of 5) are green. Both together are blue. The icon was therefore created @ 4:50. Enjoy.|
|t tester||Calculate Student's 't' value and the probability that two means are significantly different|
|Perfect Solution||Enter any three from weight, volume, formula weight and concentration and the software will calculate the fourth|
|Goldman||Play with the Nernst and Goldman equations. To see what this software can really do, click model and then select action potential.|
|Voltage Clamp||Pretend you have a patch clamp amplifier, a cell membrane and channel blocking drugs.....|
|A variant of the Goldman software is also available as a download. This software requires installation. Run "setup.exe". The downloadable version has more prettier graphics than the webware version but it is less useful for modelling....|
|Where: R = Universal gas constant (8.31441 J/mol/K); T = Absolute temperature (K); Z = valence; F = Faraday constant (96484.56 C/mol); ln = natural log; i = intracellular; o = extracellular|
At body temperature, the Nernst equation may be simplified for a monovalent ion thus:
|Where: log = log to base 10|
The Goldman software will run the Nernst equation for potassium (K+). It is conceptually much easier to set ion levels and immediately see the effects on Pd than it is to stare at equations. In most animal cells, the dominant membrane conductance is to K+ so the Nernst equation for K+ is a sensible approximation of the membrane potential.
Truth be told, the Nernst equation does not give a very good estimate of membrane potential (it has other uses) becuse cells are permeable other ions. In many cells, in addition to the K+ conductance, the Na+ and Cl- conductances are also important. The Goldman equation calculates membrane potential using the relative permeability (Pion) and the concentration gradient of all three ions.
|Where: R = Universal gas constant (8.31441 J/mol/K; T = Absolute temperature (K); F = Faraday constant (96484.56 C/mol); ln = natural log; i = intracellular; o = extracellular|
At body temperature, the Goldman equation may be simplified thus:
|Where: log = log to base 10|
If you find the Nernst Equation hard to swallow then the Goldman Equation is impossible. The Goldman software also runs the Goldman Equation and allows you to see first hand the effects of changing ion concentrations and even more importantly the effect of changing relative permeability on membrane potential.
The Goldman software also has some modelling capabilities. Choose any constant on the equation and then pick a time for it to change.... and how you want it to change.... run the software and see what happens. I have modelled the action potential as a demo.
Go ahead.... play