The Porous Materials Group conducts research on the manufacture and characterisation of particulate and porous materials. Our current focus is to develop the patented Lost Carbonate Sintering (LCS) process for manufacturing porous metals, to study the mechanical, thermal, electrical, acoustic and biological properties of porous metals and metal matrix syntactic foams, and to explore their feasibility for applications in energy, automotive, defence, aerospace, building and biomedical industries.
Articles about Our Research
Cooling Down, FOCUS, Issue 15, April 2010.
University of Liverpool Business Gateway News
The Key, 2008
Research Intelligence, Issue 28, May 2006.
University of Liverpool Leaflet
following project is a Finalist of
metals for thermal management
Dr. Zhang is the winner of the 2007 British Female Inventors and Innovators Award in the Higher Education Category for her contribution to the development of the Lost Carbonate Sintering (LCS) process.
Ý The image, taken by Dr. Liping Zhang, made it through to the final of the Materials Today cover competition and was featured in the Materials Today 2005 calendar.
Micro-porous copper for thermal management
Micro-porous titanium for biomedical applications
Acoustic properties of micro-porous metals
Mechanical properties of LCS porous metals
Metal matrix syntactic foams for energy absorption
Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Porous metallic materials and method of production thereof’, 2005, EP1755809.
Selected Recent Publications
X.F. Tao and Y.Y. Zhao, ‘Compressive failure of Al matrix syntactic foams manufactured by melt infiltration’, Materials Science and Engineering A, 549(2012), 228-232.
S. Gong, Z. Li and Y.Y. Zhao, ‘An extended Mori–Tanaka model for the elastic moduli of porous materials of finite size’, Acta Materialia, 59(2011), 6820-6830.
M. Altenaiji, G.K. Schleyer, Y.Y. Zhao, ‘Characterisation of aluminium matrix syntactic foams under static and dynamic loading’, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 82(2011), 142-147.
Y. Zhao, ‘Metal matrix syntactic foams: manufacture, matrix material, microstructure, modulus and more’, JoM, 63(2011), 35.
X. Xue and Y. Zhao, ‘Ti matrix syntactic foam fabricated by powder metallurgy: particle breakage and elastic modulus’, JoM, 63(2011), 43-47.
S. Gong, Z. Li, G.Y. Xu, N. Liu, Y.Y. Zhao and S.Q. Liang, ‘Fabrication, microstructure and property of cellular CuAlMn shape memory alloys produced by sintering–evaporation process’, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 509(2011), 2924-2928.
X.B. Xue, Y.Y. Zhao, V. Kearns and R.L. Williams, ‘Mechanical and biological properties of titanium syntactic foams’, Proceedings of TMS 2010 Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Vol. 2: Materials Characterization, Computation, Modeling and Energy, TMS, Warrendale, Pennsylvania, USA, 2010, pp. 129-135.
M. Lu and Y.Y. Zhao, ‘Mechanical properties of LCS porous steel: comparison between the dissolution and decomposition routes’, Proceedings of TMS 2010 Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Vol. 2: Materials Characterization, Computation, Modeling and Energy, TMS, Warrendale, Pennsylvania, USA, 2010, pp. 137-142.
X.F. Tao and Y.Y. Zhao, ‘Compressive behavior of Al matrix syntactic foams toughened with Al particles’, Scripta Materialia, 61(2009), 461-464.
J. Chen, Z. Li and Y.Y. Zhao, ‘A High working temperature CuAlMnZr shape memory alloy’, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 480(2009), 481-484.
X. F. Tao, G. K. Schleyer and Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Indentation tests on Al matrix syntactic foams’, in: H. Zhao and N. A. Fleck (eds.), Proc. IUTAM Symposium on Mechanical Properties of Cellular Materials, IUTAM Bookseries, 12(2009), 97-104.
M. Lu, Y.Y. Zhao, G. Seiffert and C. Hopkins, ‘Acoustic absorption characteristics of an porous steel’, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 1188(2009), 207-212.
L.P. Zhang, Y.Y. Zhao, D. Mullen and K. Lynn, ‘Heat transfer performance of porous copper fabricated by lost carbonate sintering process’, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 1188(2009), 213-218.
Z. Li, Z. Y. Pan, Y.Y Zhao, Z. Xiao, M.P.Wang, ‘Microstructure and properties of high conductivity, super high strength Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si-0.6Sn-0.15Mg alloy’, Journal of Materials Research, 24(2009), 2123-2129.
X. F. Tao, L. P. Zhang and Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Al matrix syntactic foam fabricated with bimodal ceramic microspheres’, Materials and Design, 30(2009), 2732-2736.
Y. Y. Zhao and X. F. Tao, ‘Behaviour of metal matrix syntactic foams in compression’, in: Proceedings of Materials Science and Technology (MS&T) 2009, The Printing House, Inc., Stoughton, WI 53589, USA, 2009, 1785-1794
N. Tang, M.P. Wang, H.F. Lou, Y.Y. Zhao and Z. Li, ‘Microstructure and texture of twin-roll cast Mg–3Al–1Zn–0.2Mn magnesium alloy’, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 116(2009), 11-15.
Z. Li, J.L. Chen and Y.Y. Zhao, ‘Corrosion characteristic of Ce Al brass in comparison with As Al brass’, Materials and Design, 30(2009), 1743-1747.
L. P. Zhang and Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Fabrication of high melting-point porous metals by lost carbonate Sintering Process via Decomposition Route’, Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 222(2008), 267-271.
D. J. Thewsey and Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Thermal conductivity of porous copper manufactured by the lost carbonate sintering process’, Physica Status Solidi A, 205(2008), 1126–1131.
X.F. Tao, L.P. Zhang and Y.Y. Zhao, ‘Compressive Response of Al Matrix Syntactic Foam Manufactured by Liquid Sintering’, Proc. MS&T 2008, October 5-9, 2008, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 2587-2594.
Y. Y. Zhao, X. F. Tao and X. B. Xue, ‘Manufacture and Mechanical Properties of Metal Matrix Syntactic Foams’, Proc. MS&T 2008, October 5-9, 2008, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 2607-2615.
Y. Zhao and L. E. Monaghan, ‘A novel manufacturing method for titanium foam for biomedical applications’, in: Advances in Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials, Proc. 2008 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials, June 8–12, 2008, Washington, D.C., US. Volume III: Part 9, MPIF, 2008, 340-348.
L. P. Zhang and Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Mechanical response of Al matrix syntactic foams produced by pressure infiltration casting’, Journal of Composite Materials, 41(2007), 2105-2117.
X. F. Tao, L. P. Zhang and Y.Y. Zhao, ‘Mechanical response of porous copper manufactured by lost carbonate sintering process’, Materials Science Forum, 539-543(2007), 1863-1867.
X. Ma, A. J. Peyton and Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Eddy current measurements of the electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of porous metals’, NDT & E International, 39(2006), 562-568.
M. A. Salazar-Guapuriche, Y.Y. Zhao, A Pitman and A Greene, ‘Correlation of strength with hardness and electrical conductivity for aluminium alloy 7010’, Materials Science Forum, 519-521(2006), 853-858.
Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Considerations in designing a centrifugal atomiser for metal powder production’, Materials & Design, 27(2006), 745-750.
D. X. Sun and Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Simulation of thermal diffusivity of Al/NaCl powder compacts in producing Al foams by the sintering and dissolution process’, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 169(2005), 83-88.
X. Ma, A. J. Peyton and Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Measurement of the electrical conductivity of open-celled aluminium foam using non-contact eddy current techniques’, NDT & E International, 38(2005), 359-367.
Y. Y. Zhao, T. Fung, L.P. Zhang and F.L. Zhang, ‘Lost carbonate sintering process for manufacturing metal foams’, Scripta Materialia, 52(2005), 295-298.
D. X. Sun and Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Phase changes in sintering of Al/Mg/NaCl compacts for manufacturing Al foams by the sintering and dissolution process’, Materials Letters, 59(2005), 6-10.
Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Analysis of flow development in centrifugal atomisation Part II: Disintegration of a non-fully spreading melt’, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 12(2004), 973-983.
Y. Y. Zhao, ‘Analysis of flow development in centrifugal atomization Part I: Film thickness of a fully spreading melt’, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 12(2004), 959-971.
J. W. Xie, Y. Y. Zhao and J. J. Dunkley, ‘Effects of processing conditions on powder particle size and morphology in centrifugal atomisation of tin’, Powder Metallurgy, 47(2004), 168-172.
K. H. Ho and Y. Y. Zhao, 'Modelling Flow Development on Rotating Disc in Centrifugal Atomisation', Materials Science and Engineering A, 365(2004), 336-340.
Y. Y. Zhao, F. S. Han and T. Fung, 'Optimisation of Compaction and Liquid-State Sintering in Sintering and Dissolution Process for Manufacturing Al Foams', Materials Science and Engineering A, 364(2004), 118-126.
Y. Y. Zhao, 'Stochastic Modelling of Removability of NaCl in Sintering and Dissolution Process to Produce Al Foams', Journal of Porous Materials, 10(2003), 105-111.
F. Han, G. Seiffert, Y. Zhao and B. Gibbs, 'Acoustic Absorption Behaviour of an Open-Celled Aluminium Foam', Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 36(2003), 294-302.
D. X. Sun and Y. Y. Zhao, 'Static and Dynamic Energy Absorption of Al Foams Produced by Sintering and Dissolution Process', Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 34(2003), 69-74.
Y. Y. Zhao and D. X. Sun, ‘A Novel Sintering-Dissolution Process for Manufacturing Al Foams’, Scripta Materialia, 44(2001), 105-110.
For further information please contact:
School of Engineering
The University of Liverpool
Liverpool L69 3BX
+44 (0)151 794 4697
+44 (0)151 794 4675
File last modified: 22 May 2012